Thursday, 7 January 2021

Psychodynamic Themes in Panic Disorder


  • Difficulty tolerating anger.

  • Physical or emotional separation from a significant person both in childhood and in adult life 

  • Situations of increased work responsibilities may trigger it 

  • Perception of parents as controlling, shocking, cynical, and demanding 

  • Internal representations of relationships involving sexual or physical abuse 

  • A chronic sense of feeling trapped 

  • A vicious cycle of anger at parental rejecting behavior followed by anxiety that the fantasy will destroy the tie to parents.

  • Failure of signal anxiety function in ego related to self fragmentation and self-other boundary confusion 

Typical defense mechanisms:

  • reaction formation,

  • undoing,

  • somatization,

  • externalization

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