Skip to main content


Showing posts with the label Autism

ICD-11 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

ICD-11 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (6A02) Autism spectrum disorder is characterised by persistent deficits in the ability to initiate and to sustain reciprocal social interaction and social communication, and by a range of restricted, repetitive, and inflexible patterns of behaviour, interests or activities that are clearly atypical or excessive for the individual’s age and sociocultural context. The onset of the disorder occurs during the developmental period, typically in early childhood, but symptoms may not become fully manifest until later, when social demands exceed limited capacities. Deficits are sufficiently severe to cause impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning and are usually a pervasive feature of the individual’s functioning observable in all settings, although they may vary according to social, educational, or other context. Individuals along the spectrum exhibit a full range of intellectual func


Autism From aut ="self" and - ism = state or orientation . Originally, Eugen Bleuler Used this term to describe schizophrenia. It refers to their internal apprehension of the world governed by any (pathological) tendency to be self-absorbed to such a degree that the feelings, thoughts, and desires of a person and not by an external reality are shared with others. Today we use most often the term to refer to a specific developmental syndrome. (see autism spectrum ) Copyright Notice Adapted from Wikipedia. Text is available under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 ; additional terms may apply.

Non-evidence-based Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorders

The non-evidence-based treatments for Autism Spectrum disorders What are some non-evidence-based treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders? The following is a list of non-evidence-based treatments for autism spectrum disorders that are in common use.   Facilitated communication (not recommended) Holding therapy (not recommended) Sensory integration therapy,  Gluten-free/ casein-free diet,  Auditory integration training,  Chelation treatment,  Hyperbaric oxygen therapy,  Alternative biomedical treatments

What was the 1970s psychoanalytic approach to children with autism?

The 1970s psychoanalytic approach: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), based on operant-conditioning, target behaviors (excess of unwanted and or deficits of wanted) are modified with reinforcement approximations ( shaping ). Applied behavior analysis, also called behavioral engineering, applying empirical approaches based upon the principles of respondent and operant conditioning to change behavior of social significance. It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism and the experimental analysis of behavior. (Wikipedia)

1960s Psychoanalytic Approach to Children with Autism

The 1960s psychoanalytic approach to children with autism: Base on Lovaas- socialization study Building social behavior in children with autism by use of electric shock. Method- use of identical twins: Tell them to come here and shock them until they move toward the experimenter. They based applied behavior analysis on it, supported by decades of research behind the Lovaas approach and more if you include the research into Skinner's theories, on which they base it. Predictors of response Early: better the outcome in younger children.  Intensive more sessions per week.  Duration: longer duration of therapy.  With Parents: Children accompanied by parents in therapy do better.

What are the psychoanalytic approaches to the treatment of patients with autism?

Holding therapy (Tinbergen 1983): A failure to bond Parent holds child to cause the autistic defense to crumble. Humanistic play therapy (Axline 1965): Encouraged the expression of feelings through play and unconditional positive regard. OPTIONS (Kaufman 1976) Parents spent every waking hour with child follow child lead