Showing posts with label Geriatrics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Geriatrics. Show all posts

Saturday, 30 January 2021

Depressive Pseudodementia

Depressive Pseudodementia


Depressive pseudodementia is a condition that has been described as having cognitive impairment, memory loss, and other symptoms that mimic those of dementia, but are caused by depression instead of a degenerative brain disease. In this article, we will explore the current understanding of depressive pseudodementia, including its diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment.


Depressive pseudodementia is not a recognized diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is the standard diagnostic manual for mental health conditions. However, some experts believe that it is a useful concept for understanding the relationship between depression and cognitive impairment (1). To be diagnosed with depressive pseudodementia, a patient must have symptoms that resemble those of dementia, but the symptoms must be caused by depression rather than a degenerative brain disease (2).


The symptoms of depressive pseudodementia can include forgetfulness, confusion, difficulty concentrating, and problems with language and decision-making. These symptoms may be severe enough to interfere with daily activities and work, and may lead to a misdiagnosis of dementia. However, unlike dementia, which is a progressive and irreversible condition, the cognitive symptoms of depressive pseudodementia can be improved with appropriate treatment of the underlying depression (2).


Treatment for depressive pseudodementia typically involves psychotherapy and/or antidepressant medication. With proper treatment, the cognitive symptoms of the condition can be reversed, and patients can regain their cognitive functioning (3). However, early diagnosis is important, as delay in treatment can lead to a worsening of symptoms and decreased effectiveness of treatment (2).


In conclusion, depressive pseudodementia is a condition that is characterized by cognitive impairment that is caused by depression. While it is not a recognized diagnosis in the DSM-5, it is considered a useful concept by some experts. The condition can be effectively treated with psychotherapy and/or medication, and early diagnosis is important for a good prognosis.


  1. Aalten, P., van Valen, E., de Vugt, M. E., Lousberg, R., Jolles, J., Verhey, F. R., & Rozendaal, N. (2003). Awareness and behavioral problems in dementia patients: A prospective study. International psychogeriatrics, 15(4), 365-375.
  2. Steffens, D. C., Otey, E., Alexopoulos, G. S., Butters, M. A., Cuthbert, B., Ganguli, M., ... & Taylor, W. D. (2006). Perspectives on depression, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. Archives of general psychiatry, 63(2), 130-138.
  3. Sheline, Y. I. (2003). Depression and the hippocampus: cause or effect?. Biological psychiatry, 54(3), 201-202.

Wednesday, 27 January 2021

Human Resources, Psychometric and Treatment Facilities you need to make the Forensic Evaluations

Human Resources, Psychometric and Treatment Facilities you need to make the Forensic Evaluations


The local authorities have requested you to provide forensic psychiatry support for prison services in your area. What are the various human resources, psychometric, and treatment facilities that you would require to make the forensic evaluations?

Human Resources

  1. Forensic psychiatrist
  2. Forensic psychologist
  3. Occupational therapist
  4. Social worker
  5. Trained nurses

Psychometric Tools

  1. Historical clinical risk management-20 
  2. Violence risk appraisal guide
  3. Psychopathy checklist Revised
  4. Sexual violence risk 20
  5. Stalking assessment and management
  6. Spousal assault risk assessment guide

General Scales

  1. PANNS
  2. HAMD
  3. IPDE
  4. HADS
  6. COWS
  7. Coloured progressive matrices 

Treatment Facilities

  1. Seclusion rooms
  2. Electroconvulsive therapy rooms

Monday, 25 January 2021

Establishing a Geriatric (old-age) Clinic; Medications and their Principles, Psychometric Tools, and Intake Performa

Establishing a Geriatric (old-age) Clinic; Medications and their Principles, Psychometric Tools, and Intake Performa


In view of increasing needs for elderly population requiring psychiatric help, your medical superintendent asked you to develop a senior citizens' clinic in your hospital. 

  1. Enlist and classify all medicines that you will need. 
  2. State the principles on which you base your choices.
  3. Enlist 8 psychometric tests/scales you will need?
  4. Which information do you think you will consider while developing an intake proforma?

Principles Of Prescribing Medications in the Elderly

  1. Avoid drugs with long-half-lives (increased already in this population because of reduced renal and liver function, increased volume of distribution and relatively higher body fat content)
  2. Avoid drugs that worsen cognitive function, keeping in mind the rates of dementia in this population.
  3. Keep in mind the risk of fall and over sedation with central depressants and the propensity to side effects.
  4. Avoid drugs with an alpha-receptor blocking property (hypotension, prostate hypertrophy)

Suitable Choice of Medications in the Elderly 

Acetylcholine Esterase Inhibitors

  1. Donepezil
  2. Rivastigmine
  3. Galantamine

NMDA Antagonists 

  • Memantine


  • Risperidone
  • Quetiapine
  • Haloperidol


  • Sertraline
  • Citalopram
  • Escitalopram
  • Mirtazapine 
  • Trazodone (for agitation and as a hypnotic)


  1. Lorazepam
  2. Temazepam
  3. Lormetazepam

Mood Stabilizers

  • Valproate
  • Carbamazepine
  • Lithium Carbonate

Psychometric Tools and Rating Scales


  1. MMSE
  2. MoCA
  3. Six-item cognitive scale
  4. 7-Minute Screen


  1. Mouse PAD
  2. Behave AD


  • CAM


  1. Geriatric depression rating scale
  2. Cornel scale


  1. Bristol Scale
  2. Disability scale for dementia

Global Function

  • Clinical dementia rating


  1. Frontal Assessment Battery
  2. Hachinski scale

Intake Performa for Old-Age Units

The following are the useful components of the Intake Performa you would need. 

  1. Identification data including a picture for later identification and demographics
  2. Indication for admission 
  3. Full history from the patient and carers
  4. Complete physical and neurological and mental state examination
  5. Functional assessment including cognitive status, motor functioning and mobility, activities of daily living especially self-care, global function, capacity, sensory impairments
  6. Social assessment
  7. Accommodation needs, 
  8. Need for a carer 
  9. Needs of carers
  10. financial and legal issues
  11. Power of attorney
  12. Social activities
  13. Risks: especially Risk of fall, risk of abuse
  14. Pension/social support
  15. Next of kin

Tuesday, 5 July 2016

Mechanism of Dementia in Downs Syndrome

Which of the following is responsible for dementia seen in adults with Down’s syndrome?

A. Loss of genetic material in chromosome 21
B. Extra genetic material in chromosome 21
C. Genetic material lost from chromosome 14
D. Loss of genetic material corresponding to presenilin -1
E. Loss of genetic material corresponding to Apoe4

Ok extra genetic material is the correct answer. The gene that codes for b amyloid is located on chromosome 21. Since down syndrome is due to trisomy 21 so there is increased amount of genetic material that production of its product proteins. Product protein of the APP gene located on chromosome 21 is beta amyloid that is central to the aetiology of alzheimers

Sensory stimulation therapies for dementia


  • White noise

  • Aroma therapy

  • Music therapy, Massage

  • Bright light therapy

Featured Post

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50)

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50) A collection of dice Foundation URI : 6C50 Gambling d...