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Showing posts with the label PCDGStory

What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?

To clear the concept, these two are the major Differentiating points b/w Negative reinforcement and Punishment1) Negative reinforcement strengthen a response while punishment weaken/decreases a response. 2) Negative reinforcement involves removal of unpleasant stimulus while punishment is presentation of an unpleasant stimulus.

Better imaging study for the assement of change in behavior

Patient has change in behavior. Would it be preferable to use CT with contrast or without contrast for assessment ?LikeShow more reactions Comments Sarmad Mushtaq Ct withcontrast  Immo Mani With contrast Valeed Ahmed Yess with contrast,,, inflammation and tumors etc can create change in behavior that can be better viewed by contrast enhanced CT, contrast agents can not enter the BB barrier except in arease of inflamation where the barrier is damages ir tumor where it is not formed,,,so the contrast enters there very well, making the area distinct due to more absroption of radiation

Stressors impact on health & well-being

According to richard lazarus, what kind of stressors are having most impact on health and well being ? Comments: Inam Ul Haque Masood; Are we talking about the Lazarus or Kanner. I believe that Lazarus theory was based on the Primary Appraisal leading to Positive , Dangerous and Indifferent Threats leading to Secondary Appraisals and stress in which the Dangerous Threats were perceived to produce the stress and in Kanner hypothesis Daily Hassles had the role. Need a little elaboration Correct Answer: The everyday hassles rather than the big events like earthquakes, floods,,,and other disasters

Social Readjustment Scale:

On social readjustment scale, the most stressful event is ? a) Death of spouse b) Death of child c) Death of parent d) Death of sibling e) Marriage  Comments: Isha Mughal: All Saqib Siddique: Death of a spouse have 100 points Nanny Marry: Death of spouse but mostly for women... Immo Mani: Although all events are stressful but I think number one is the right answer Ruby Malik: Death of child Kira Awan: I think it varies from situation to situation... in case of children... its death of case of couple... its death of my case its marriage !!! Correct Answer: death of spouse is the right answer. T he scale talks about the overall situation not about individuals. Remember this scale is based on research from real people from general population like you and me. So overall people find the death of spouse to be most difficult life change to adjust to.

Terror Management Theory:

Every human is aware of the inevitable nature of death; yet people don't feel as terrified of death as expected even at old age. What mechanism reduces this terror ? correct answer: "One theory that explains this is terror management theory" According to this theory, it is the culture that prevents this fear. People either keep themselves unaware of this reality or those who are aware of it most of the time ; they would be pursuing their cultural goals. In this way they would also be increasing their self esteem. These two (high self esteem, and cultural world view being defended, reduce the fear or anxiety of the inevitability of death.  For example , Muslims would become more religious in old age and that would also elevate their self esteem and give a purpose to their lives so their death related anxiety would reduce . I think, if i am not wrong, there is a Hadith related to this as well, that we should remind ourselves about death every now and then "remind often

Consent by a diabetic patient who appears incompetent

A 55-year old woman with diabetes is diagnosed to have gangrene on both feet. She was brought to the hospital. She told the doctor the she is feeling fine and she has no medical problems. Can she give consent for the amputation of both legs? Comments Anam Najam no  Hajira Mehboob No she needs psychological treatment... Valeed Ahmed The patient appears incompetent as she says she is fine and there is nothing wrong with her, so her consent is not acceptable

Hospitalizing autism patient who is not resisting

You are working in the UK as a consultant psychiatrist. A 20 year old Patient is suffering from autism. You think he should be admitted to autism treatment center. Guardians are not willing to hospitalize him although the patient himself is not actively refusing to be hospitalized. What is the most appropriate step to take ? Admit him to the hospital Treat on out patient basis Refer to best interests assessor Comments Bournewood Gap An adult patient who was suffering from autism was admitted to bounwood hospital because he by himself was not resisting to be admitted although his carers were not willing for this. This case indicated a “gap” in the law i.e. Failure to protect an individual’s liberty if he can not resist. Deprivation of liberty safeguards Bournewood case lead to deprivation of liberty safeguards act in 2007, according to which such patients will be asses by a ‘best interests assessor’ before such action is taken to make sure it is in the best interest of the patient. The

Mentally ill patient needs medical treatment

An adult patient is severely depressed refuses get treated for HCV infection. How should this patient be dealt with ? First treat depression and then for HCV Treat for HCV and depression without consent Obtain a court order to treat for both Comments Anam Najam First treat depression and then for HCV Waleed   Ahmed When a mentally ill patient refuses consent to medical treatment, the steps are Step 1 treat the psychiatric condition Step 2 treat the medical condition If psychiatric condition can not be treated, consider legal action e.g. Court order or consent from relative Angel's Dua agreed