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Tuesday, 12 July 2016
What is the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment?
2) Negative reinforcement involves removal of unpleasant stimulus while punishment is presentation of an unpleasant stimulus.
Better imaging study for the assement of change in behavior
Sarmad Mushtaq Ct withcontrast
Immo Mani With contrast
Valeed Ahmed Yess with contrast,,, inflammation and tumors etc can create change in behavior that can be better viewed by contrast enhanced CT, contrast agents can not enter the BB barrier except in arease of inflamation where the barrier is damages ir tumor where it is not formed,,,so the contrast enters there very well, making the area distinct due to more absroption of radiation
Monday, 11 July 2016
Stressors impact on health & well-being
According to richard lazarus, what kind of stressors are having most impact on health and well being ?
Social Readjustment Scale:
On social readjustment scale, the most stressful event is ?
a) Death of spouse
b) Death of child
c) Death of parent
d) Death of sibling
Isha Mughal: All
Kira Awan: I think it varies from situation to situation... in case of children... its death of parents..in case of couple... its death of spouse...in my case its marriage !!!
Sunday, 10 July 2016
Terror Management Theory:
Every human is aware of the inevitable nature of death; yet people don't feel as terrified of death as expected even at old age. What mechanism reduces this terror ?
"One theory that explains this is terror management theory"
According to this theory, it is the culture that prevents this fear. People either keep themselves unaware of this reality or those who are aware of it most of the time ; they would be pursuing their cultural goals. In this way they would also be increasing their self esteem. These two (high self esteem, and cultural world view being defended, reduce the fear or anxiety of the inevitability of death.
For example, Muslims would become more religious in old age and that would also elevate their self esteem and give a purpose to their lives so their death related anxiety would reduce . I think, if i am not wrong, there is a Hadith related to this as well, that we should remind ourselves about death every now and then "remind often the destroyers of pleasures"death [sunan at Tirmhdi]. wherever you are, death will find you, even if you are in towers built-up strong and high" Quran [4:78] (someone correct me). Which according to this theory would make people more religious (if they are).
Tuesday, 5 July 2016
Consent by a diabetic patient who appears incompetent
A 55-year old woman with diabetes is diagnosed to have gangrene on both feet. She was brought to the hospital. She told the doctor the she is feeling fine and she has no medical problems. Can she give consent for the amputation of both legs?
Anam Najam no
Hajira Mehboob No she needs psychological treatment...
Hospitalizing autism patient who is not resisting
You are working in the UK as a consultant psychiatrist. A 20 year old Patient is suffering from autism. You think he should be admitted to autism treatment center. Guardians are not willing to hospitalize him although the patient himself is not actively refusing to be hospitalized. What is the most appropriate step to take ?
Admit him to the hospital
Treat on out patient basis
Refer to best interests assessor
An adult patient who was suffering from autism was admitted to bounwood hospital because he by himself was not resisting to be admitted although his carers were not willing for this. This case indicated a “gap” in the law i.e. Failure to protect an individual’s liberty if he can not resist.
Deprivation of liberty safeguards
Bournewood case lead to deprivation of liberty safeguards act in 2007, according to which such patients will be asses by a ‘best interests assessor’ before such action is taken to make sure it is in the best interest of the patient. The act itself is complicated.
Mentally ill patient needs medical treatment
An adult patient is severely depressed refuses get treated for HCV infection. How should this patient be dealt with ?
First treat depression and then for HCV
Treat for HCV and depression without consent
Obtain a court order to treat for both
Anam Najam First treat depression and then for HCV
Waleed Ahmed When a mentally ill patient refuses consent to medical treatment, the steps are
Step 1 treat the psychiatric condition
If psychiatric condition can not be treated, consider legal action e.g. Court order or consent from relative
ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50)
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