Showing posts with label Human Development. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Human Development. Show all posts

Thursday, 7 January 2021

Transitional Object

Transitional Object

Mary Ainsworth studied and showed that attachment helps to lessen anxiety.


It allows a child to leave the attached figure and explore the surroundings. A transitional object, which is an inanimate object, such as a teddy bear or a blanket, also works as a secure-base. Children carry it along as they examine the environment. 


  1. Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, Pa.

  2. Duschinsky R. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982. Hist Psychol. 2015;18(1):32–46. doi:10.1037/a0038524

Friday, 7 June 2019

Development in the first year of life summarised

Development in the first year of life summarised
  1. Smiling starts at 3 weeks. 
  2. Selective smiling starts at 6 months. 
  3. Fear of strangers starts at 8 months, while separation anxiety starts later to that. 
  4. At the end of the first year, children also learn a few simple words like mama, dada, etc. 
  5. Weaning starts at around 6 months and should have completed by the end of the year. 
  6. An ordered sleep-wake cycle has also got established, Children learn to point at objects in the first year of life.

Thursday, 7 July 2016

Long-term Consequences of Maternal Deprivation Mnemonic

Long-term Consequences of Maternal Deprivation Mnemonic


The Mnemonic PAID can help memorise and recall the longterm effects of maternal deprivation as described in the theory of attachment (Bowlby)
  • Psychopathy (affectionless)
  • Aggression (increased)
  • Intelligence (being low)
  • Depression, delinquency 

Tuesday, 5 July 2016

Types of learning theories in this case

Valeed Ahmed's photo.


 Valeed Ahmed Apart from observational learning theory,is there any other theory applicable here

 Rabia Jihan Classical Conditioning

Sanam Munir Operant learning

Precious Faimii opernt conditionning, *punishment

 Valeed Ahmed Operant? Punishment is not a reinforcer

 Precious Faimii 4 types of reinforcemnt,, negative reinforcer, positive reinforcer, punishment and extinction.,,,  if i m not wrong

 Valeed Ahmed Yep u r right

 Noor Noor Classical conditioning

Angel's Dua Classical conditioning,  first of all its important to evaluate the problem of the child before applying any technique, i.e to see what is the cause of his this beh,,, then according to the problem solve the issue,,,, u may apply positive reinforcement to encourage the positive beh and negative reinforcement to reduce negative beh

 Brothers Doll Operant therapy as well as observation is too much important... bcoz through observation we know better those factors which disturb the client...

And behavior therapy is also good option in that case..

 Aneesa Batool Abbasi classical conditioning

Unconditioned stimulus- school bag.
unconditioned response- shouting and beating
conditioned stimulus -school bag
conditioned response- abdominal pain.,,,,
 If we want to prevent this behaviour then 

obeservational theory
operant learning -with reward
( give chocolate or his favourite lunch etc)

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Erikson's stages of personality development Beautiful Mnemonic

Trust your Autonomy and Initiate the Industry, or your idenity will be isolated rather than self integrated.

  • Trust versus mistrust 

  • Autonomy versus shame and doubt

  • Initiative versus shame and doubt

  • Industry versus inferiority 

  • Identity versus confusion

  • Intimacy versus isolation 

  • Generativity vs self absoption

  • Integreity vs despair

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