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Showing posts with the label Human Development

Transitional Object

Transitional Object Mary Ainsworth studied and showed that attachment helps to lessen anxiety. Secure-base-effect: It allows a child to leave the attached figure and explore the surroundings. A transitional object, which is an inanimate object, such as a teddy bear or a blanket, also works as a secure-base. Children carry it along as they examine the environment.  References:  Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, Pa. Duschinsky R. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982. Hist Psychol. 2015;18(1):32–46. doi:10.1037/a0038524

Development in the first year of life summarised

Development in the first year of life summarised Smiling starts at 3 weeks.  Selective smiling starts at 6 months.  Fear of strangers starts at 8 months, while separation anxiety starts later to that.  At the end of the first year, children also learn a few simple words like mama, dada, etc.  Weaning starts at around 6 months and should have completed by the end of the year.  An ordered sleep-wake cycle has also got established, Children learn to point at objects in the first year of life.

Types of learning theories in this case

Comments   Valeed Ahmed Apart from observational learning theory,is there any other theory applicable here   Rabia Jihan Classical Conditioning Sanam Munir Operant learning Precious Faimii opernt conditionning, *punishment   Valeed Ahmed Operant? Punishment is not a reinforcer   Precious Faimii 4 types of reinforcemnt,, negative reinforcer, positive reinforcer, punishment and extinction.,,,    if i m not wrong   Valeed Ahmed Yep u r right   Noor Noor Classical conditioning Angel's Dua Classical conditioning,    first of all its important to evaluate the problem of the child before applying any technique, i.e to see what is the cause of his this beh,,,   then according to the problem solve the issue,,,,  u may apply positive reinforcement to encourage the positive beh and negative reinforcement to reduce negative beh   Brothers Doll Operant therapy as well as observation is too much important... bcoz through observation we know better those factors which disturb

Erikson's stages of personality development Beautiful Mnemonic

Trust your Autonomy and Initiate the Industry , or your idenity will be isolated rather than self integrated . Trust versus mistrust  Autonomy versus shame and doubt Initiative versus shame and doubt Industry versus inferiority  Identity versus confusion Intimacy versus isolation   Generativity vs self absoption Integreity vs despair