Showing posts with label Clinical Psychology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Clinical Psychology. Show all posts

Thursday, 7 January 2021

Transitional Object

Transitional Object

Mary Ainsworth studied and showed that attachment helps to lessen anxiety.


It allows a child to leave the attached figure and explore the surroundings. A transitional object, which is an inanimate object, such as a teddy bear or a blanket, also works as a secure-base. Children carry it along as they examine the environment. 


  1. Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, Pa.

  2. Duschinsky R. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982. Hist Psychol. 2015;18(1):32–46. doi:10.1037/a0038524

Wednesday, 6 January 2021

Types of Learning According to the Theories of Learning


Types of Learning | Theories of Learning

What are the types of learning according to the theories of learning?  

  1. Classical Conditioning or associative learning.

  2. Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning  

  3. Cognitive learning

    1. Signal Response

      1. The predictive power of conditioned-response; the higher it is, the greater the conditioned response. 

      2. Response-Outcome Relations

      3. The cognitive judgment of the individual relating the response to the outcome, rather than an unconscious stamping in of the conditioning. 

    2. Latent Learning:

      1. Learning but not exhibiting the learned behavior until adequate reinforcement is presented. 

  4. Observational Learning through Modeling 

Sunday, 13 December 2020

What are the techniques of active reading and learning?

  1. Read the summary to get an idea
  2. Study the table of contents
  3. Read all the bold faced excerpts and boxed summary
  4. Leaf through the entire chapter
  5. Identify the most important and unfamiliar words
  6. Highlight the key points
  7. Develop deeper understanding
  8. Compare to your previous concepts

Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Mnemonic for Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

Mnemonic for Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development

The following sentence helps me remember the stages of psychosexual development in order. 

Onions And Potatoes Look Great

  1. Oral
  2. Anal
  3. Phallic
  4. Latency 
  5. Genital 

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