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Showing posts with the label Clinical Psychology

Transitional Object

Transitional Object Mary Ainsworth studied and showed that attachment helps to lessen anxiety. Secure-base-effect: It allows a child to leave the attached figure and explore the surroundings. A transitional object, which is an inanimate object, such as a teddy bear or a blanket, also works as a secure-base. Children carry it along as they examine the environment.  References:  Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2015). Kaplan & Sadock Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, Pa. Duschinsky R. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982. Hist Psychol. 2015;18(1):32–46. doi:10.1037/a0038524

Types of Learning According to the Theories of Learning

  Types of Learning | Theories of Learning What are the types of learning according to the theories of learning?   Classical Conditioning or associative learning. Operant Conditioning or Instrumental Conditioning   Cognitive learning Signal Response The predictive power of conditioned-response; the higher it is, the greater the conditioned response.  Response-Outcome Relations The cognitive judgment of the individual relating the response to the outcome, rather than an unconscious stamping in of the conditioning.  Latent Learning: Learning but not exhibiting the learned behavior until adequate reinforcement is presented.  Observational Learning through Modeling