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Showing posts from June, 2023

Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3

Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3 Palaniyappan, L. and Krishnadas, R. Published: 25 March 2010 Following the recent changes to the syllabus and MRCPsych exam by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, this book contains 450 multiple-choice questions to help psychiatry trainees to prepare for Paper 3 of the exam. Supporting these MCQs are detailed explanatory answers and revision notes referenced to the key textbooks used by trainees. The book's content matches the MRCPsych syllabus and includes practice papers for true exam preparation. Reference Type:  Book Record Number: 508 Author: Palaniyappan, L. and Krishnadas, R. Year: 2010 Title: Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3 Publisher: OUP Oxford Short Title: Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3 ISBN: 9780199553617

Escape and Avoidance Conditioning: Understanding and Applying the Concepts

Escape and Avoidance Conditioning: Understanding and Applying the Concepts Introduction Escape and avoidance conditioning are two types of classical conditioning that are used to explain how animals and humans learn from their environment. These concepts have been studied for decades and have important applications in fields such as psychology, education, and animal training. Escape Conditioning Escape conditioning is a type of classical conditioning in which an organism learns to avoid or escape from an unpleasant stimulus by performing a specific behavior. In other words, escape conditioning is the process of learning to remove oneself from an aversive situation. An example of escape conditioning can be seen in a dog that learns to jump over a fence to escape a painful shock. The dog associates the shock with the fence and learns to escape the aversive situation by jumping over the fence. As a result, the dog's behavior is shaped through reinforcement, as the escape behavior resu

Intergroup Behaviour

Intergroup Behaviour Introduction Intergroup behaviour refers to how individuals or groups of people interact with and relate to one another based on their membership in different social categories such as race, ethnicity, gender, nationality, or religion. This field of study has long been of interest to social psychologists as intergroup behaviour has the potential to lead to both cooperation and conflict. Social Identity Theory One of the most well-known theories of intergroup behaviour is Social Identity Theory, which was first proposed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s. According to this theory, individuals derive a sense of self from their membership in social categories or "ingroups." Social identity theory suggests that individuals are motivated to enhance the positive image of their ingroups, leading them to act in ways that benefit their ingroups, while negatively evaluating "outgroups" that do not belong to their ingroup. This can result in inte

Object Constancy

Object Constancy Object constancy is a principle of perceptual organization that refers to the ability of the brain to maintain a stable perception of an object, despite changes in its size, shape, orientation, or other aspects of its appearance. This ability allows us to recognize objects as the same, even when viewed from different angles or under different lighting conditions. Object constancy is important for navigating our environment and interacting with the world around us. For example, imagine looking at a familiar object, such as a chair, from different angles. Despite the changes in its appearance, you can still recognize it as a chair and understand its purpose. This is because your brain is able to maintain a stable perception of the object, based on its learned knowledge of what a chair typically looks like. Object constancy is a fundamental aspect of perception, and is essential for our ability to make sense of the world around us. It is also a key area of research in psy