Showing posts with label mnemonics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label mnemonics. Show all posts

Tuesday, 10 May 2022

Drugs used to Treat Antipsychotic-Induced Weight-Gain (Mnemonic)

Drugs used to Treat Antipsychotic-Induced Weight-Gain (Mnemonic)

The following mnemonic is for the drugs used to treat antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The list is not based on priority; however, metformin is the preferred choice, especially when there is comorbid polycystic ovary disease. Orlistat, with calorie restriction, is also an effective choice.


  • Fluoxetine 
  • Orlistat
  • Reboxetine
  • Metformin, methylcellulose, melatonin
  • Topiramate
  • Bupropion 

Wednesday, 4 May 2022

Preferred Choices for the Treatment of Bipolar Depression in Children: Mnemonic

Preferred Choices for the Treatment of Bipolar Depression in Children

The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry, 14th Edition, enlists lurasidone, olanzapine and quetiapine as the preferred choices of treatment for bipolar depression in Children.

Mnemonic: LOQ

  • Lurasidone 
  • Olanzapine
  • Quetiapine 
See the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry for further details. 

Wednesday, 6 January 2021

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome 



  • Fever
  • Encephalopathy
  • Vitals
  • Unstable
  • Enzymes
  • Rigidity of Muscles


  • Dantrolene
  • D2 agonists (e.g., bromocriptine).

Wednesday, 5 December 2018

Mnemonic for Types of Stress

Mnemonic for Types of Stress

Here is a silly but worthwhile mnemonic to remember the major types of stress 

Change of pressure created the conflict, which frustrated everyone.

Friday, 15 July 2016

Most common themes of obsessions Mneomonic


  • R     Religion

  • O     Orderliness

  • S     Sex

  • I      Illness

  • D    Dirt and contamination 

  • A    Aggression

Wednesday, 13 July 2016

Tourette Syndrome

Tourette Syndrome

Clinical features

>> Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition.

  • Multiple vocal and motor tics 
  • Starting before the age of 18 and 
  • Persisting for a duration of at least one year
  • We have excluded other causes of tics.
Learning difficulties 
Social problems 
Emotional disturbances

Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines (13th Edition) 

They recommend alpha-2 agonists such as Clonidine or Guanfacine as the first-line pharmacological treatment for Tics and Tourette Syndrome 

American Family Physicians and Canadian Guidelines

Antipsychotics possess a variety of serious adverse effects (Pringsheim et al., 2012) and even though the evidence base for them is strong, we use them in cases not responding to alpha-2 agonists.


  1. Taylor, D. (2018). The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines. The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines. 
  2. Kenney, C., Kuo, S.-H., & Jimenez-Shahed, J. (2008). Tourette’s syndrome. American Family Physician, 77(5), 651–658. Retrieved from
  3. Pringsheim, T., Doja, A., Gorman, D., McKinlay, D., Day, L., Billinghurst, L., … Sandor, P. (2012). Canadian Guidelines for the Evidence-Based Treatment of Tic Disorders: Pharmacotherapy. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(3), 133–143. 

Cognitive Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis

Impairment of learning, abstraction, memory, and problem-solving occur in patients with multiple sclerosis. These impairments are present in 40% of patients with multiple sclerosis in the community. Sometimes, it is an early manifestation. 

  1. Mostly the impairments are seen later in the course.
  2. The impairments are mild and progress slowly. 
  3. Well-practiced verbal skills are often preserved. 
Cognitive impairment correlates with total lesion load and degree of callosal atrophy on brain imaging. 

  • Learning
  • Abstraction
  • Memory
  • Problem-solving

Features of schizoid personality, Mnemonic


  • D detached

  • A aloof

  • I introspective 

  • L lacking enjoyment 

  • E emotionally cold 

Clinical features of complex partial sezires, Mnemonic

"Pardon DJ Hell, you are Producing GAS that is AFFECting All the Fearful TEDS, CoSTing them MaDness" 


  • Distorted perceptions, Deja Vu

  • Jamais Vu

  • Hallucinations 


  • Grimacing and other body movements 

  • Automatisms

  • Stereotyped behaviors


  • Fear and anxiety

  • Euphoric or ecstatic states

Autonomic and visceral 

  • Flushing

  • Tachycrdia 

  • Epigastric aura

  • Dizziness

  • Other bodily Sensations


  • Speech disturbances

  • Thought disturbances

  • Memory disturbances

  • Depersonalization, derealization 

Monday, 11 July 2016

Components and Principles of management of schizophrenia Mnemonic

What are the components and principles of management of schizophrenia ? 


  • CBT, cognitive remediation, clozapine, crisis resolution teams.

  • Outreach teams 

  • Needs assessment 

  • Family intervention

  • Integrated treatment for comorbid substance abuse

  • Antipsychotics

  • Therapeutic realtionship 

  • Early intervention 

Thursday, 7 July 2016

Principal features of a therapeutic community Mnemonic


  • Directness and honestly, decisions are shared.

  • Shared activities 

  • Mutual help

  • Permissiveness 

  • Informality

Long-term Consequences of Maternal Deprivation Mnemonic

Long-term Consequences of Maternal Deprivation Mnemonic


The Mnemonic PAID can help memorise and recall the longterm effects of maternal deprivation as described in the theory of attachment (Bowlby)
  • Psychopathy (affectionless)
  • Aggression (increased)
  • Intelligence (being low)
  • Depression, delinquency 

Saturday, 2 July 2016

Thursday, 30 June 2016

Strategies to Improve Medication Adherence

Offer to discuss the concerns and name the involved persons of the family

  • Offer information about medications before prescription 

  • Discuss the information actively 

  • The information should include the name, mechanism, effects and side effects of the medication

  • Involve the patient in decisions

  • Recognise and address the concerns of the patient as treatment progresses

  • For schizophrenic patients, social and family support be ensured

Psychoticism (Components Of) Mnemonic


  • Impulsive

  • Antisocial 

  • Cold

  • Egocentric 

Eysenck's High Order Traits of Personality


  • Psychoticism

  • Extroversion

  • Neuroticism

Individual psychiatric and medical factors that increase the risk of suicide


  • Mood disorders, (chronic) Medical conditions especially epilepsy

  • Personality Disorder

  • Alcohol abuse

  • Drug abuse (other), DSH past history

  • Schizophrenia

* DSH deliberate self harm

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Erikson's stages of personality development Beautiful Mnemonic

Trust your Autonomy and Initiate the Industry, or your idenity will be isolated rather than self integrated.

  • Trust versus mistrust 

  • Autonomy versus shame and doubt

  • Initiative versus shame and doubt

  • Industry versus inferiority 

  • Identity versus confusion

  • Intimacy versus isolation 

  • Generativity vs self absoption

  • Integreity vs despair

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