Showing posts with label IMM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IMM. Show all posts

Friday, 15 January 2021

How Does the Oedipal Complex Resolve?

How Does the Oedipal Complex Resolve?

Oedipus complex refers to the son–father competition for possession of his mother that occurs during the phallic stage of psychosexual development. The male child resolves it by crushing the hostility against and identifying with his father and repressing his feelings for his mother. The child takes on the mannerisms, standards, and behaviours of his father, and in this way, the superego develops at six.

Trigger for the Resolution

When the Oedipus complex forms, the boy remains in a constant conflict. He directs his libido towards his mother and develops an emotional rivalry with his father. Because of this rivalry, he wants to kill the father, but because of his position; becomes fearful that his father might castrate him—we call this castration anxiety. 

Use of defences

Defence mechanisms provide momentary relief of the conflict between the id and the ego. Repression and identification are the two mechanisms that help with this. 


It means "unconscious blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind." Repression provides momentary relief of the conflict that the child has with his father."


To permanently abolish the conflict that gives rise to castration anxiety, the boy identifies with the father, incorporating his personality characteristics. He enjoys being like his father—a hero like his father. 

Sunday, 13 December 2020

What are the characteristics of a physician according to the holistic medicine?

Belief in potential of healing act
Capacity to listen and empathies
Respect and dignity of humans
Tolerance to difference of opinion
Gentle spirit
Ability to mix creative thinking
Never give up.

Thursday, 17 November 2016

Reasons for increasing incidents of violence in hospitals

  • changes in mental health policies that have made dangerousness a relatively more common reason for admission (as non-violent patients are more likely tobe treated in the community)

  • overcrowding

  • lack of sufficiently experienced staff

  • increased use of illegal substances.

Thursday, 14 July 2016

Models of breaking Bad news

The following are the models of breaking bad news






  • Kays Model

Wednesday, 13 July 2016

Cognitive Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis

Impairment of learning, abstraction, memory, and problem-solving occur in patients with multiple sclerosis. These impairments are present in 40% of patients with multiple sclerosis in the community. Sometimes, it is an early manifestation. 

  1. Mostly the impairments are seen later in the course.
  2. The impairments are mild and progress slowly. 
  3. Well-practiced verbal skills are often preserved. 
Cognitive impairment correlates with total lesion load and degree of callosal atrophy on brain imaging. 

  • Learning
  • Abstraction
  • Memory
  • Problem-solving

Features of schizoid personality, Mnemonic


  • D detached

  • A aloof

  • I introspective 

  • L lacking enjoyment 

  • E emotionally cold 

Clinical features of complex partial sezires, Mnemonic

"Pardon DJ Hell, you are Producing GAS that is AFFECting All the Fearful TEDS, CoSTing them MaDness" 


  • Distorted perceptions, Deja Vu

  • Jamais Vu

  • Hallucinations 


  • Grimacing and other body movements 

  • Automatisms

  • Stereotyped behaviors


  • Fear and anxiety

  • Euphoric or ecstatic states

Autonomic and visceral 

  • Flushing

  • Tachycrdia 

  • Epigastric aura

  • Dizziness

  • Other bodily Sensations


  • Speech disturbances

  • Thought disturbances

  • Memory disturbances

  • Depersonalization, derealization 

Skills taught in Dialectical Behavior therapy, Mnemonic


  • Mindfulness 

  • Anger control

  • Interpersonal skills

  • Ways of tolerating Distress

Elements of Dialectical Behavior Therapy, Mnemonic


  • Mindfulness

  • Aphorisms 

  • Dialectical ways of thinking

  • Cognitive and behavioral techniques 

Abnormal beleifs that cause stigma, Mnemonic

These abnormal beleifs of the people form the basis of psychiatric stigma: DUFIT

  • These people are Dangerous

  • They are Unpredictable 

  • They Feel different from the rest of us

  • They are Incurable

  • Psychiatric patients can't be Talked to or related to

Monday, 11 July 2016

Components and Principles of management of schizophrenia Mnemonic

What are the components and principles of management of schizophrenia ? 


  • CBT, cognitive remediation, clozapine, crisis resolution teams.

  • Outreach teams 

  • Needs assessment 

  • Family intervention

  • Integrated treatment for comorbid substance abuse

  • Antipsychotics

  • Therapeutic realtionship 

  • Early intervention 

Antipsychotic Groups, Mnemonic


  • Butyrphenonoes, benzisoxazole

  • Phenothiazines

  • Thioxanthenes

  • Substituted benzamides

  • Diabenzothiazepines, diabenzodiazepines

Mnemonic for the Adult Traits Associated with Freud's Oral Phase of Development

According to the theory of psychosexual development, subjects develop the following traits with fixation at the oral stage of development: 
  1. Dependency
  2. Optimism
  3. Gullibility
  4. Sarcasm
  5. Hostility
  6. Aggression
  7. Pessimism, passivity



Thursday, 7 July 2016

Principal features of a therapeutic community Mnemonic


  • Directness and honestly, decisions are shared.

  • Shared activities 

  • Mutual help

  • Permissiveness 

  • Informality

Tuesday, 5 July 2016

Exception to the rule of consent to treatment

Which of the following cannot be considered as an exception to direct informed consent?
A. Waiver
B. Detention under mental health act
C. Emergencies where full information cannot be given
D. Incompetent patient
E. Passively compliant patient


Valeed Ahmed The answer is E, passive compliance is not an exception, rather an implied consent is.

The situations in which explicit consent is not required are :

Implied consent given
Necessity (harm likely, competency doubted)

Types of learning theories in this case

Valeed Ahmed's photo.


 Valeed Ahmed Apart from observational learning theory,is there any other theory applicable here

 Rabia Jihan Classical Conditioning

Sanam Munir Operant learning

Precious Faimii opernt conditionning, *punishment

 Valeed Ahmed Operant? Punishment is not a reinforcer

 Precious Faimii 4 types of reinforcemnt,, negative reinforcer, positive reinforcer, punishment and extinction.,,,  if i m not wrong

 Valeed Ahmed Yep u r right

 Noor Noor Classical conditioning

Angel's Dua Classical conditioning,  first of all its important to evaluate the problem of the child before applying any technique, i.e to see what is the cause of his this beh,,, then according to the problem solve the issue,,,, u may apply positive reinforcement to encourage the positive beh and negative reinforcement to reduce negative beh

 Brothers Doll Operant therapy as well as observation is too much important... bcoz through observation we know better those factors which disturb the client...

And behavior therapy is also good option in that case..

 Aneesa Batool Abbasi classical conditioning

Unconditioned stimulus- school bag.
unconditioned response- shouting and beating
conditioned stimulus -school bag
conditioned response- abdominal pain.,,,,
 If we want to prevent this behaviour then 

obeservational theory
operant learning -with reward
( give chocolate or his favourite lunch etc)

Sensory stimulation therapies for dementia


  • White noise

  • Aroma therapy

  • Music therapy, Massage

  • Bright light therapy

Friday, 17 June 2016

What are the medical conditions that can cause depression?


  • SLE

  • Addison's

  • Neurological

  • Diabetes 

  • Infections

  • Carcinoma

  • Thyroid

Autosomal recessive disorders

  • MoCKuP AfGHaniSTan

  • Mucopolysccahridoses(except hurler's)

  • Cystic Fibrosis

  • Kartagener syndrome 

  • PKU

  • Albinism, AR-PKD

  • Glycogen storage diseases

  • Hemochromatosis 

  • Sickle cell anemia, Sphingolipidoses except fabrys disease

  • Thalassemia 

What personality factors are associated with alcoholism?


  • Novelty seeking

  • Inferiority

  • Self-indulgent tendencies

  • Antisocial

  • Risk taking

Featured Post

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50)

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50) A collection of dice Foundation URI : 6C50 Gambling d...