Skip to main content


Showing posts from 2014

Schizophrenia as a Disorder of Disorganized Focus of Attention ONLY.

Schizophrenia as a Disorder of Disorganized Focus of Attention ONLY.  Schizophrenia is THE psychiatric condition with variable manifestations involving all the major areas of a mental state examination, appearance and behaviour, thoughts and speech, cognitions, perceptions, mood, and most commonly, insight or reality-testing. Studies have long proposed schizophrenia being related to impaired regulation of attention; we propose a model explaining the entire range of manifestations as the result of a disorganized focus of attention.  Explaining delusions The cognitive model of depression proposes that patients with dysfunctional beliefs maintain these because of their selective attention to evidence that confirms these beliefs and their tendency to ignore the evidence against it. In the most severe cases, these dysfunctional beliefs may progress to delusions in which case they absolutely do not attend to evidence against their delusional beliefs and are preoccupied with the evidence and

FCPS-2 October 2014, College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan

FCPS-2 October 2014, College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan Q.4 A student of BSc diagnosed with borderline personality disorder presented in an emergency after attempting self-harm following a quarrel with a boyfriend. What signs and symptoms require urgent medical treatment? What care we should take in managing this patient in the ward What psychosocial support you will activate Give instructions on discharge regarding follow-ups. Q.5 What are the various points that differentiate between the various anxiety disorders in terms of their prevalence and clinical features? Q.6 A 39-year-old woman is diagnosed with severe depression years after the death of her husband. She is suicidal and has active suicidal ideations and symptoms of psychosis and is not responding to treatment with antidepressants. The psychiatrist plans ECT on this patient.  What are the other indications to start ECT in severe depressive disorder What are the indications for ECT other than severe depression? E

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Sample CASC

So, I have been asked by your GP to have a chat with you because you are having some difficulties in judging. So, as far as I know, you have, you were in an accident. A few months ago and since then you've been having some difficulties. But if it's okay, I'll let you explain what led you to come in here already. Yeah, I just had an accident about six months ago. And ever since then, I just can't get out of my head. was it was a serious accident? Yeah, it was it could have been, you know, the car was all messed up in a way you know to sort of concussion to split a whiplash room in the car was really hard. I can see where you're getting a bit anxious even talking about it. If you find questions difficult to answer It's okay, we can move on. And you can take your time, too, if you're feeling anxious. So you had this unfortunate accident you said that, although you will not seriously injure the car was quite badly damaged, and you make the most depending on how

Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder

  Management Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder What is the cognitive treatment for depressive disorder? Cognitive behavioral therapy Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder Who and when was it developed? Beck et al in the 1960s Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder What does it combine? Cognitive and behavioral aspects Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder Is it available on the nhs? Yes Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder What is the individual told to focus on and consider? Focus on negative thoughts and then consider new ways of thinking Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder What are the 2 main focuses on cognitive behavior therapy?  -change distorted thinking present in those with depressive disorder -train patients to use more adaptive methods Cognitive treatment for depressive disorder What are the 3 main aims of the treatment? Challenge negative thinking and replace with constructive positive thoug


  Lithium FAQ 01 What are the indications for lithium? We use lithium in the prophylaxis and treatment of mania, prophylaxis of bipolar disorder, as an augmentation strategy for patients with treatment -resistant depression. What are the common signs of lithium toxicity? Thirst, polyuria, memory problems, tremor, weight gain, tiredness, diarrhea. Cognitive dysfunction is the most common symptom that leads to non-compliance. Side effects are dose-related. What is the concentration at which toxic effects reliably occur? Toxic effects reliably occur at 1.5mmol/l but toxic effects can occur at MUCH LOWER LEVELS in many patients, especially in older patients, systemically ill patients, and in use of alcohol or other CNS active meds What are the two systems lithium causes the most damage to? Thyroid and kidneys What are the differences between the brands of lithium? There are differences in bioavailability, and recommendations are to keep to the patient on the same brand. If it is necess