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Showing posts with the label behavioral sciences

Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Intergroup Hostility: A Structured Overview

Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Intergroup Hostility: A Structured Overview Introduction Prejudice, stereotypes, and intergroup hostility are interrelated concepts that can have a significant impact on social relationships and attitudes between different groups of people. This article will provide a structured overview of these concepts and examine how they are related. Prejudice Prejudice refers to an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual or group based on their membership in a particular social category, such as race, ethnicity, or religion. Prejudice can take many forms, including racism, sexism, homophobia, and xenophobia. It is important to note that prejudice is not the same as discrimination, which refers to the unequal treatment of individuals or groups based on prejudice. Stereotypes Stereotypes are oversimplified generalizations about individuals or groups that are made without considering each individual's unique qualities and characteristics. Stereotypes are of

Intergroup Behaviour

Intergroup Behaviour Introduction Intergroup behaviour refers to how individuals or groups of people interact with and relate to one another based on their membership in different social categories such as race, ethnicity, gender, nationality, or religion. This field of study has long been of interest to social psychologists as intergroup behaviour has the potential to lead to both cooperation and conflict. Social Identity Theory One of the most well-known theories of intergroup behaviour is Social Identity Theory, which was first proposed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the 1970s. According to this theory, individuals derive a sense of self from their membership in social categories or "ingroups." Social identity theory suggests that individuals are motivated to enhance the positive image of their ingroups, leading them to act in ways that benefit their ingroups, while negatively evaluating "outgroups" that do not belong to their ingroup. This can result in inte

Attitudes: Components and Measurement by Thurstone, Likert and Semantic Differential Scales

Attitudes: Components and Measurement by Thurstone, Likert and Semantic Differential Scales Introduction Attitudes are complex psychological constructs that reflect an individual's positive or negative feelings, beliefs, and evaluations about a particular object, person, or event. Attitudes are crucial in shaping behaviour and influencing information processing and decision-making. To better understand attitudes, researchers have developed various frameworks and measurement tools to assess them. Components and Measurement by Thurstone One of the earliest frameworks for understanding attitudes was developed by Louis Thurstone, who identified seven primary attitudes that individuals hold: pleasure, displeasure, approval, disapproval, favourable, unfavourable, and neutral attitude. According to Thurstone, attitudes can be measured by determining the strength of an individual's feelings towards an object or event, with stronger attitudes indicating more intense feelings and evaluat

Common Crisis Situations in Clinical Practice

Common Crisis Situations in Clinical Practice Point out the crises seen in day to day clinical practice. Developmental crises common to all occur in  Stressful states of human maturation and transition. e.g. hospitalization Situational crises person faces stressful and traumatic event e.g. flood, earthquake, rape, etc. WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal

Informational care to calm down an agitated patient with delirium

Informational Care to Calm Down an Agitated Patient with Delirium A 46-year-old man is admitted to the medical emergency, and he is very agitated and restless, the diagnosis is delirium. The family wants urgent management. What informational care we provide to the family by you to calm them down? Sitting and introduction Rapport building and inquiries Symptoms are of medical illness and  As soon we confirm the diagnosis, we will treat him for the medical cause, and  Symptoms will settle down. Frequently reorient him He may see scorpions etc, reassure him Keep close to him Keep lighting suitable for sleep and enough visibility. Prevent harm to the patient and the family. Closes the interview

Biopsychosocial Model of Healthcare and doctor-patient relationship

The biopsychosocial model of healthcare emphasizes the following paradigms of doctor-patient relationship Psychosocial assessment, Use of communication skills, Informational care, Counseling, Crises intervention, and Extension of care to the family.     "The biopsychosocial model is an interdisciplinary model that looks at the interconnection between biology, psychology, and socio-environmental factors. The model specifically examines how these aspects play a role in topics ranging from health and disease models to human development. George L. Engel developed this model in 1977 and is the first of its kind to employ this type of multifaceted thinking. The biopsychosocial model has received criticism about its limitations but continues to carry influence in the fields of psychology, health, medicine, and human development." Source: Biopsychosocial model -

Factors that Obstruct Effective Communication

Factors that Obstruct Effective Communication The following factors can interfere with effective communication during clinical assessment.  Lack of exclusivity, for example, assessment on the bedside inside a unit of 20 patients.  Anxiety by a doctor, because of which divides their attention and concentrating, not the assessment is difficult.  Awkward seating that makes it difficult to relax while assessing a patient.  Lack of attention to the nonverbal cues Offensive remarks. Frequent interruptions.  Selective listening. Daydreaming.