Showing posts with label behavioral sciences. Show all posts
Showing posts with label behavioral sciences. Show all posts

Tuesday, 14 February 2023

Attitudes: Components and Measurement by Thurstone, Likert and Semantic Differential Scales

Attitudes: Components and Measurement by Thurstone, Likert and Semantic Differential Scales


Attitudes are complex psychological constructs that reflect an individual's positive or negative feelings, beliefs, and evaluations about a particular object, person, or event. Attitudes are crucial in shaping behaviour and influencing information processing and decision-making. To better understand attitudes, researchers have developed various frameworks and measurement tools to assess them.

Components and Measurement by Thurstone

One of the earliest frameworks for understanding attitudes was developed by Louis Thurstone, who identified seven primary attitudes that individuals hold: pleasure, displeasure, approval, disapproval, favourable, unfavourable, and neutral attitude. According to Thurstone, attitudes can be measured by determining the strength of an individual's feelings towards an object or event, with stronger attitudes indicating more intense feelings and evaluations.

Likert Scale

Another framework for understanding attitudes was developed by Rensis Likert, who introduced the Likert scale. The Likert scale is a type of rating scale that measures attitudes by asking individuals to rate their agreement or disagreement with a series of statements about an object or event. This type of scale is widely used in attitude research and is considered to be a reliable and valid measure of attitudes.

Semantic Differential Scale

Finally, the semantic differential scale is another measurement tool that is used to assess attitudes. The semantic differential scale measures attitudes by asking individuals to rate an object or event along a series of bipolar adjective pairs, such as good-bad, pleasant-unpleasant, and positive-negative. This type of scale is designed to capture the nuanced and complex nature of attitudes, as it takes into account the various dimensions and evaluations that individuals hold.


  1. Thurstone, L. L. (1928). Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology, 33(6), 529-554.
  2. Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-55.
  3. Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Friday, 8 January 2021

Important Questions About History of Drug Use

Important Points about the History of Drug Use

  1. Regular or intermittent
  2. Amount (know the units)
  3. Pattern dependence/withdrawal 
  4. Impact on work, relationships, money, police 
  5. Screening questionnaires e.g. CAGE

Thursday, 7 January 2021

Common Crisis Situations in Clinical Practice

Common Crisis Situations in Clinical Practice

Point out the crises seen in day to day clinical practice.

  1. Developmental crises common to all occur in Stressful states of human maturation and transition. e.g. hospitalization
  2. Situational crises person faces stressful and traumatic event e.g. flood, earthquake, rape, etc.

WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal

Informational care to calm down an agitated patient with delirium

Informational Care to Calm Down an Agitated Patient with Delirium

A 46-year-old man is admitted to the medical emergency, and he is very agitated and restless, the diagnosis is delirium. The family wants urgent management.

What informational care we provide to the family by you to calm them down?
  1. Sitting and introduction
  2. Rapport building and inquiries
  3. Symptoms are of medical illness and 
  4. As soon we confirm the diagnosis, we will treat him for the medical cause, and 
  5. Symptoms will settle down.
  6. Frequently reorient him
  7. He may see scorpions etc, reassure him
  8. Keep close to him
  9. Keep lighting suitable for sleep and enough visibility.
  10. Prevent harm to the patient and the family.
  11. Closes the interview

What are the Basics of Communication Skills?

The Basics of Communication Skills

Communication skills are central to clinical assessment. The following are the basic techniques that improve communications Skills. 
  1. Attending and listening
  2. Active listening
  3. Verbal techniques
  4. Funneling
  5. Paraphrasing
  6. Selective reflection
  7. Empathy building
  8. Checking for understanding.

Behavioral Sciences OSCEs

Tuesday, 22 December 2020

Biopsychosocial Model of Healthcare and doctor-patient relationship

The biopsychosocial model of healthcare emphasizes the following paradigms of doctor-patient relationship

  • Psychosocial assessment,
  • Use of communication skills,
  • Informational care,
  • Counseling,
  • Crises intervention, and
  • Extension of care to the family.



"The biopsychosocial model is an interdisciplinary model that looks at the interconnection between biology, psychology, and socio-environmental factors. The model specifically examines how these aspects play a role in topics ranging from health and disease models to human development. George L. Engel developed this model in 1977 and is the first of its kind to employ this type of multifaceted thinking. The biopsychosocial model has received criticism about its limitations but continues to carry influence in the fields of psychology, health, medicine, and human development."

Source: Biopsychosocial model -

Sunday, 13 December 2020

Factors that Obstruct Effective Communication

Factors that Obstruct Effective Communication

The following factors can interfere with effective communication during clinical assessment. 
  • Lack of exclusivity, for example, assessment on the bedside inside a unit of 20 patients. 
  • Anxiety by a doctor, because of which divides their attention and concentrating, not the assessment is difficult. 
  • Awkward seating that makes it difficult to relax while assessing a patient. 
  • Lack of attention to the nonverbal cues
  • Offensive remarks.
  • Frequent interruptions. 
  • Selective listening.
  • Daydreaming. 

What are the characteristics of a physician according to the holistic medicine?

Belief in potential of healing act
Capacity to listen and empathies
Respect and dignity of humans
Tolerance to difference of opinion
Gentle spirit
Ability to mix creative thinking
Never give up.

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