Skip to main content


Showing posts with the label formal thought disorder

Loosening of Association

Loosening of Association A loss of the normal structure of thinking.  The patient’s discourse seems muddled and illogical and does not become clearer with further questioning; there is a lack of general clarity, and the interviewer has the experience that the more he/she tries to clarify the patient’s thinking, the less we understand it.   Loosening of associations occurs mostly in patients with schizophrenia. Earlier psychopathologists have described three kinds of loosening of association: Knight’s move thinking ( Derailment , Entgleisen ):  There is a change in the train of thought. There is retained but misled determining of the objective of thought. There is a disordered intermixture of constituent parts of one complex thought.  Talking past the point ( vorbeireden )  where the patient gets close to the point of discussion, but skirts around it and never actually reach it Verbigeration (word salad, schizophasia, paraphrasia)  where speech is reduced to a senseless repetition of so

Disorders of the Form of Thought

Disorders of the Form of Thought Form of thought Form of thought is the way people experience or express thoughts and the way thoughts proceed one after the other irrespective of their quantity. It helps in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Normal thinking forms include the following.  Dereistic Thinking (daydreams) Imaginative thinking Rational thinking Formal Thought Disorder The term ‘formal thought disorder’ is a synonym for disorders of conceptual or abstract thinking that are most seen in schizophrenia and organic brain disorders. In schizophrenia, disorders in the form of thinking may coexist with deficits in cognition, and these forms of thought disturbance may prove difficult to distinguish in certain cases. Cameron used the term ‘Asyndesis’ to describe the lack of adequate connections between successive thoughts. Cameron placed particular emphasis on ‘over-inclusion’, which is an inability to narrow down the operations of thinking and bring into action the organized att