Patient Health Questionnaire-9
(PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001).
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 is a 9-item self-report measure assessing depressive symptoms in adults.
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 can be used as a screening tool, a diagnostic tool, and to monitor symptom change over time.
There exists a separate version for the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for adolescents within the Patient Health Questionnaire-Adolescent Version. Sample items include:
“Little interest or pleasure in doing things” and “Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless.”
Each item is rated on a scale from zero (“not at all”) to three (“nearly every day”).
Total scores range from 0-27.
Meta-analysis of the PHQ-9 diagnostic accuracy compared to independent mental health professional diagnosis demonstrates good criterion validity with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 94 %.
The PHQ is also validated as an 8- and 2-item measure to assess depression severity.
PHQ Screeners-Instruction Manual, 2010