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The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale

The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale 

The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, has been widely recommended for its ease of use and reliability and validity. In this scale, the presence of two or more signs is suggestive of catatonia.

Is the most widely used instrument for catatonia. The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale has twenty-three items, and there is also a shorter, 14-item screening version. The reliability and validity of the Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale has been established (Bush et al, 1996). The screening section marks items #1-14 as either “absent” or “present.” The full-scale rates items #1-23 on a scale of 0-3. The ratings are made based on the observed behaviours during the examination, except for completing the items for “withdrawal” and “autonomic abnormality,” which may be based upon either observed b anehavioursd/or chart documentation. Rate items only if well defined. If uncertain, rate the item as “0”.

Using the Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, 32% of 225 patients with chronic schizophrenia meet the criteria for catatonia. See Ungvari et al., 2005. 

It has two subscales

  1. A screening instrument with fourteen items that are marked as either present or absent.  

  2. The full severity scale with nine extra items scored zero to three.

Ungvari GS, Leung SK, Ng FS, Cheung HK, Leung T. Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia'): I. Demographic and clinical correlates in the chronic phase. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005;29(1):27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2004.08.007


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