Friday, 27 May 2022

ICD-11 Criteria for Disorders Due to Use of Opioids(6C43)

ICD-11 Criteria for Disorders Due to Use of Opioids (6C43)

Disorders due to use of opioids are characterised by the pattern and consequences of opioid use. Opioids is a generic term that encompasses the constituents or derivatives of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum as well as a range of synthetic and semisynthetic compounds, some related to morphine and others chemically distinct but all having their primary actions on the ยต opioid receptor. Examples of opioids include morphine, diacetylmorphine (heroin), fentanyl, pethidine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, methadone, buprenorphine, codeine and d-propoxyphene. The opioids all have analgesic properties of different potencies and are primarily central nervous system depressants. They suppress respiration as well as other vital functions and are a common cause of overdose and related deaths. Certain opioids are used or administered parenterally, including heroin, a common and potent opioid that is primarily used non-medically. Therapeutic opioids are prescribed for a range of indications worldwide, and are essential for pain management in cancer pain and palliative care, although they are also used for non-therapeutic reasons. In some countries morbidity and mortality related to therapeutic opioids is greater than that related to heroin. All opioids may result in Opioid Intoxication, Opioid Dependence and Opioid Withdrawal. A range of Opioid-Induced Disorders occur, some of which occur following Opioid Withdrawal.

Exclusions:             

  • Hazardous use of opioids (QE11.0)

6C43.0     Episode of Harmful use of Opioids

An episode of opioid use that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour due to opioid intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of single episode of harmful use applies. This diagnosis should not be made if the harm is attributed to a known pattern of opioid use.

Exclusions:             

  • Harmful pattern of use of opioids (6C43.1)
  • Opioid dependence (6C43.2)

6C43.1    Harmful Pattern of use of Opioids

A pattern of use of opioids that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. The pattern of opioid use is evident over a period of at least 12 months if substance use is episodic or at least one month if use is continuous (i.e., daily or almost daily). Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour related to opioid intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of Harmful pattern of use of opioids applies.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Opioid dependence (6C43.2)

6C43.10    Harmful Pattern of Use of Opioids, Episodic

A pattern of episodic or intermittent use of opioids that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. The pattern of episodic opioid use is evident over a period of at least 12 months. Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour related to opioid intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of Harmful pattern of use of opioids applies.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Opioid dependence (6C43.2)

6C43.11    Harmful Pattern of Use of Opioids, Continuous

A pattern of continuous (daily or almost daily) use of opioids that has caused damage to a person’s physical or mental health or has resulted in behaviour leading to harm to the health of others. The pattern of continuous opioid use is evident over a period of at least one month. Harm to health of the individual occurs due to one or more of the following: (1) behaviour related to intoxication; (2) direct or secondary toxic effects on body organs and systems; or (3) a harmful route of administration. Harm to health of others includes any form of physical harm, including trauma, or mental disorder that is directly attributable to behaviour related to opioid intoxication on the part of the person to whom the diagnosis of Harmful pattern of use of opioids applies.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Opioid dependence (6C43.2)

6C43.1Z    Harmful Pattern of Use of Opioids, Unspecified

6C43.2    Opioid Dependence

Opioid dependence is a disorder of regulation of opioid use arising from repeated or continuous use of opioids. The characteristic feature is a strong internal drive to use opioids, which is manifested by impaired ability to control use, increasing priority given to use over other activities and persistence of use despite harm or negative consequences. These experiences are often accompanied by a subjective sensation of urge or craving to use opioids. Physiological features of dependence may also be present, including tolerance to the effects of opioids, withdrawal symptoms following cessation or reduction in use of opioids, or repeated use of opioids or pharmacologically similar substances to prevent or alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The features of dependence are usually evident over a period of at least 12 months but the diagnosis may be made if opioid use is continuous (daily or almost daily) for at least 3 months.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of opioids (6C43.1)

6C43.20    Opioid Dependence, Current use

Opioid dependence, with use of an opioid within the past month.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of opioids (6C43.1)

6C43.21     Opioid Dependence, Early Full Remission

After a diagnosis of opioid dependence, and often following a treatment episode or other intervention (including self-help intervention), the individual has been abstinent from opioid use during a period lasting from between 1 and 12 months.

Exclusions:            

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of opioids (6C43.1)

6C43.22     Opioid Dependence, Sustained Partial Remission

After a diagnosis of Opioid dependence, and often following a treatment episode or other intervention (including self-help intervention), there is a significant reduction in opioid consumption for more than 12 months, such that even though opioid use has occurred during this period, the definitional requirements for dependence have not been met.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of opioids (6C43.1)

6C43.23     Opioid Dependence, Sustained full Remission

After a diagnosis of Opioid dependence, and often following a treatment episode or other intervention (including self-intervention), the person has been abstinent from opioids for 12 months or longer.

Exclusions:             

  • Episode of harmful use of opioids (6C43.0)
  • Harmful pattern of use of opioids (6C43.1)

6C43.2Z    Opioid Dependence, Unspecified

6C43.3    Opioid Intoxication

Opioid intoxication is a clinically significant transient condition that develops during or shortly after the consumption of opioids that is characterised by disturbances in consciousness, cognition, perception, affect, behaviour, or coordination. These disturbances are caused by the known pharmacological effects of opioids and their intensity is closely related to the amount of opioids consumed. They are time-limited and abate as opioids are cleared from the body. Presenting features may include somnolence, stupor, mood changes (e.g. euphoria followed by apathy and dysphoria), psychomotor retardation, impaired judgment, respiratory depression, slurred speech, and impairment of memory and attention. In severe intoxication coma may ensue. A characteristic physical sign is pupillary constriction but this sign may be absent when intoxication is due to synthetic opioids. Severe opioid intoxication can lead to death due to respiratory depression.

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

Exclusions:             

  • Opioid poisoning (NE60)
  • Possession trance disorder (6B63)
  • fentanyl poisoning (NE60)
  • oxycodone poisoning (NE60)

6C43.4    Opioid Withdrawal

Opioid withdrawal is a clinically significant cluster of symptoms, behaviours and/or physiological features, varying in degree of severity and duration, that occurs upon cessation or reduction of use of opioids in individuals who have developed Opioid dependence or have used opioids for a prolonged period or in large amounts. Opioid withdrawal can also occur when prescribed opioids have been used in standard therapeutic doses. Presenting features of Opioid withdrawal may include dysphoric mood, craving for an opioid, anxiety, nausea or vomiting, abdominal cramps, muscle aches, yawning, perspiration, hot and cold flushes, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, hypersomnia (typically in the initial phase) or insomnia, diarrhea, piloerection, and pupillary dilatation.

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

6C43.5     Opioid-Induced Delirium

Opioid-induced delirium is characterised by an acute state of disturbed attention and awareness with specific features of delirium that develops during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal or during the use of opioids. The amount and duration of opioid use must be capable of producing delirium. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder, by use of or withdrawal from a different substance, or by another health condition that is not classified under Mental, Behavioural, and Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

Inclusions:              

  • Delirium induced by opioid withdrawal

6C43.6    Opioid-Induced Psychotic Disorder

Opioid-induced psychotic disorder is characterised by psychotic symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations, disorganised thinking, grossly disorganised behaviour) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from opioids. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of psychotic-like disturbances of perception, cognition, or behaviour that are characteristic of Opioid intoxication or Opioid withdrawal. The amount and duration of opioid use must be capable of producing psychotic symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g. Schizophrenia, a Mood disorder with psychotic symptoms), as might be the case if the psychotic symptoms preceded the onset of the opioid use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the opioid use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with psychotic symptoms (e.g. a history of prior episodes not associated with opioid use).

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

6C43.7     Certain Specified Opioid-Induced Mental or Behavioural Disorders

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

6C43.70     Opioid-Induced Mood Disorder

Opioid-induced mood disorder is characterised by mood symptoms (e.g., depressed or elevated mood, decreased engagement in pleasurable activities, increased or decreased energy levels) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from opioids. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of mood disturbances that are characteristic of Opioid intoxication or Opioid withdrawal. The amount and duration of opioid use must be capable of producing mood symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g., a Depressive disorder, a Bipolar disorder, Schizoaffective disorder), as might be the case if the mood symptoms preceded the onset of the opioid use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the opioid use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with mood symptoms (e.g., a history of prior episodes not associated with opioid use).

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

6C43.71    Opioid-induced anxiety disorder

Opioid-induced anxiety disorder is characterised by anxiety symptoms (e.g., apprehension or worry, fear, physiological symptoms of excessive autonomic arousal, avoidance behaviour) that develop during or soon after intoxication with or withdrawal from opioids. The intensity or duration of the symptoms is substantially in excess of anxiety symptoms that are characteristic of Opioid intoxication or Opioid withdrawal. The amount and duration of opioid use must be capable of producing anxiety symptoms. The symptoms are not better explained by a primary mental disorder (e.g., an Anxiety and Fear-Related Disorder, a Depressive Disorder with prominent anxiety symptoms), as might be the case if the anxiety symptoms preceded the onset of the opioid use, if the symptoms persist for a substantial period of time after cessation of the opioid use or withdrawal, or if there is other evidence of a pre-existing primary mental disorder with anxiety symptoms (e.g., a history of prior episodes not associated with opioid use).

Coding Note:     Code aslo the causing condition

6C43.Y    Other specified disorders due to use of opioids
6C43.Z    Disorders due to use of opioids, unspecified


REFERENCE:

International Classification of Diseases Eleventh Revision (ICD-11). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. License: CC BY-ND 3.0 IGO.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/igo/


No comments:

Post a Comment

Your Thoughts?

Featured Post

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50)

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50) Foundation URI : http://id.who.int/icd/entity/1041487064 6C50 Gambling disorder Description G...