Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)
Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001
The PHQ-9 is a 9-item self-report measure assessing depressive symptoms in adults. The PHQ-9 can be used as a screening tool a diagnostic tool, and to monitor symptom changes over time. There exists a separate version of the PHQ-9 for adolescents within the Patient Health Questionnaire-Adolescent Version (PHQ-A; Johnson et al., 2002). Sample items include, “Little interest or pleasure in doing things” and “Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless.” Each item is rated on a scale from zero (“not at all”) to three (“nearly every day”). Total scores range from 0-27. Meta-analysis of the PHQ-9 diagnostic accuracy compared to independent mental health professional diagnosis demonstrates good criterion validity with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 94%.
The PHQ is also validated as an 8- and 2-item measure to assess depression severity.
The measures are available online
(Stable Resource Toolkit, SAMHSA, 1999)
(PHQ Screeners-Instruction Manual, 2010), (Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2003). (Kroenke et al., 2001).
(Löwe, Unützer, Callahan, Perkins, & Kroenke, 2004).