Skip to main content

Depression Rating Scales


Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)

Fendrich, Weissman, & Warner, 1990).

The CES-DC is a 20-item self-report measure designed to assess depressive symptoms in youths ages 6-23. The CES-DC can be used as a screening tool (Bright Futures: Tools for Professionals, 2013), and to monitor symptom changes over time (Radloff, 1991). It is most appropriate for use in youths ages 12 to 18 (Sharp & Lipsky, 2002). Sample items include, “I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me,” and “It was hard to get started doing things.” Each item is rated on a scale from zero (“Not At All”) to three (“A Lot”). The CES-DC is designed to be administered in five to ten minutes. The clinical cutoff for the CES-DC is 15 (Fendrich et al., 1990). The CES-DC demonstrates excellent internal consistency (α = .92; Fendrich et al., 1990) and concurrent validity with the CDI (Kovacs, 1985).

Download CES-DC

  1. Sharp LK, Lipsky MS. Screening for depression across the lifespan: a review of measures for use in primary care settings. Am Fam Physician. 2002;66(6):1001-1008. 

Depression Self Rating Scale for Children (DSRSC)

Birleson, Hudson, Buchanan, & Wolff, 1987).

The DSRSC is an 18-item self-report measure assessing depressive symptoms in youths ages 8-14. The DSRSC can be used as a screening tool (Birleson, 1981). It has been validated for use with adolescent samples ages 11-17 (Ivarsson, Lidberg, & Gillberg, 1994). Sample items include, “I get tummy aches,” and “I have lots of energy.” Each item is rated from zero (“present always) to two (“never”). The DSRSC was designed to be administered in five to ten minutes. A cut-off value of 15 was set up to differentiate depressed youths from non-depressed youths and has a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 77% (Verhulst & van der Ende, 2006). The DSRSC demonstrates good internal consistency (α = .86) and can differentiate between youths with depression versus youths with other diagnoses (Birleson et al., 1987). In addition, it also shows concurrent validity with the CDI

(Kovacs, 1985; Asarnow & Carlson, 1985). Download SRSC


Popular posts from this blog

ADVOKATE: A Tool for Assessment of Eyewitness Evidence

ADVOCATE: A Tool for Assessment of Eyewitness Evidence It is a tool designed to assess the eyewitness evidence that how much it is reliable. It requires the user to respond to several statements/questions. Forensic psychologist, police or investigative officer can do it. The mnemonic ADVOKATE stands for: A = amount of time under observation (event and act) D = distance from suspect V = visibility (night-day, lighting) O = obstruction to the view of the witness K = known or seen before when and where (suspect) A = any special reason for remembering the subject T = time-lapse (how long has it been since witness saw suspect) E = error or material discrepancy between the description given first or any subsequent accounts by a witness.  Working with suspects (

Diagnostic test for catatonia, the lorazepam challenge test

Benzodiazepines are the mainstay of the treatment of catatonia and are also helpful as a diagnostic probe. A positive Lorazepam Challenge Test validates the diagnosis of catatonia. After we examine the patient for signs of catatonia, 1 or 2 mg of lorazepam is administered intravenously. After 5 minutes, the patient is re-examined. If there has been no change, a second dose is given, and the patient is again reassessed (46, 78). A positive response is a marked reduction (e.g., at least 50%) of catatonic signs and symptoms, as measured with a standardized rating scale. Favorable responses usually occur within 10 min (46). If lorazepam is given intramuscularly or per os, the interval for the second dose should be longer: 15′ and 30′, respectively. Many clinicians will share the experience that a “lorazepam test” not only confirms the diagnosis of catatonia but that it also makes the underlying psychopathology apparent “by permitting mute patients to speak” (79). Analogous to the lorazepa

Classification of Depression According to the ICD-10

A first depressive episode, duration at least15 days →depressive episode (F32)  A first depressive episode, severe and rapid onset, duration less than 15 days →still depressive episode (F32) A depressive episode can be mild (2 core symptoms, 2 other symptoms from the list) (32.0) moderate (2 core symptoms, 3 or preferably 4 other symptoms) (32.1) Severe (3 core symptoms, 4 other symptoms) without psychotic symptoms (32.2) (no delusion, hallucination or stupor) Severe with psychotic symptoms (above plus either delusions, hallucinations or stupor) (F32.3) Delusions can be mood-congruent or incongruent (neutral delusions e.g. delusions of reference are considered mood incongruent. None of them count towards schizoaffective disorder unless one of the first-rank)  A mild and moderate depressive episode can be  with somatic syndrome (four or more somatic symptoms, or three very severe somatic symptoms) without somatic syndrome (three or less somatic symptoms, not severe)  A severe depressi