Skip to main content

Borderline Evaluation of Severity over Time

Borderline Evaluation of Severity over Time

 (BEST; Blum, Pfohl, John, Monahan, & Black, 2002). The BEST is a 15-item self-report measure assessing symptoms associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults.  The BEST can be used as a screening tool and diagnostic tool, and to monitor symptom change over time (Pfohl et al., 2009. The BEST has not been used with adolescents, nor does a separate adolescent version exist.  The measure consists of three subscales: thoughts and feelings, negative behaviors, and positive behaviors. Sample items include, “Feelings of emptiness,” “Going to extremes to try to keep someone from leaving you,” and “Choosing to use a positive activity in circumstances where you felt tempted to do something destructive or self-defeating.” All items on both the thoughts and feelings and negative behaviors subscales are rated on a 5-point scale from one (“none/slight”) to five (“extreme”). Items on the positive behaviors subscale are rated on a 5-point scale of frequency from one (“almost never”) to five (“almost always”). Total scores range from 12 to 72 (Pfohl et al., 2009). The BEST demonstrates excellent internal consistency (α = .92), and approaches adequate test-retest reliability over a period of 53.1 days (r = .62; Pfohl et al., 2009). In addition, the BEST demonstrates concurrent validity with the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD; Zanarini, 2003; Pfohl et al., 2009). The measure is available online:



Popular posts from this blog

ADVOKATE: A Tool for Assessment of Eyewitness Evidence

ADVOCATE: A Tool for Assessment of Eyewitness Evidence It is a tool designed to assess the eyewitness evidence that how much it is reliable. It requires the user to respond to several statements/questions. Forensic psychologist, police or investigative officer can do it. The mnemonic ADVOKATE stands for: A = amount of time under observation (event and act) D = distance from suspect V = visibility (night-day, lighting) O = obstruction to the view of the witness K = known or seen before when and where (suspect) A = any special reason for remembering the subject T = time-lapse (how long has it been since witness saw suspect) E = error or material discrepancy between the description given first or any subsequent accounts by a witness.  Working with suspects (

Diagnostic test for catatonia, the lorazepam challenge test

Benzodiazepines are the mainstay of the treatment of catatonia and are also helpful as a diagnostic probe. A positive Lorazepam Challenge Test validates the diagnosis of catatonia. After we examine the patient for signs of catatonia, 1 or 2 mg of lorazepam is administered intravenously. After 5 minutes, the patient is re-examined. If there has been no change, a second dose is given, and the patient is again reassessed (46, 78). A positive response is a marked reduction (e.g., at least 50%) of catatonic signs and symptoms, as measured with a standardized rating scale. Favorable responses usually occur within 10 min (46). If lorazepam is given intramuscularly or per os, the interval for the second dose should be longer: 15′ and 30′, respectively. Many clinicians will share the experience that a “lorazepam test” not only confirms the diagnosis of catatonia but that it also makes the underlying psychopathology apparent “by permitting mute patients to speak” (79). Analogous to the lorazepa

Classification of Depression According to the ICD-10

A first depressive episode, duration at least15 days →depressive episode (F32)  A first depressive episode, severe and rapid onset, duration less than 15 days →still depressive episode (F32) A depressive episode can be mild (2 core symptoms, 2 other symptoms from the list) (32.0) moderate (2 core symptoms, 3 or preferably 4 other symptoms) (32.1) Severe (3 core symptoms, 4 other symptoms) without psychotic symptoms (32.2) (no delusion, hallucination or stupor) Severe with psychotic symptoms (above plus either delusions, hallucinations or stupor) (F32.3) Delusions can be mood-congruent or incongruent (neutral delusions e.g. delusions of reference are considered mood incongruent. None of them count towards schizoaffective disorder unless one of the first-rank)  A mild and moderate depressive episode can be  with somatic syndrome (four or more somatic symptoms, or three very severe somatic symptoms) without somatic syndrome (three or less somatic symptoms, not severe)  A severe depressi