Tuesday, 17 May 2022

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used to screen for depression and to measure behavioral manifestations and severity of depression. The BDI can be used for ages 13 to 80. The inventory contains 21 self-report items which individuals complete using multiple choice response formats. The BDI takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. We have tested validity and reliability of the BDI across populations, worldwide.


Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4(6), 561-571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004


Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.


Osman, A., Kopper, B.A., Barrios, F., Gutierrez, P.M., & Bagge, C.L. (2004). Reliability and validity of the Beck Depression Inventory—II with adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Psychological Assessment, 16(2), 120-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.16.2.120

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APA: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)

How to Access

Pricing varies and can be purchased through Pearson Assessments.

Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)

The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was designed for use in the general population and is now used as a screener for depression in primary care settings. It includes 20 self-report items, scored on a 4-point scale, which measure major dimensions of depression experienced in the past week. The CES-D can be used for children as young as 6 and through older adulthood. It has been tested across gender and cultural populations and maintains consistent validity and reliability. The scale takes about 20 minutes to administer, including scoring.


Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306


Saracino, R.M., Cham, H., Rosenfeld, B., & Nelson, C.J. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in oncology with examination of invariance between younger and older patients. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000510

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Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Sciences: CES-D

How to Access

The CES-D (PDF, 28KB) is in the public domain and no permission is required for use.

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