Thursday, 12 May 2022

Beck Depression Inventory BDI 1 and 2

Beck Depression Inventory BDI 1 and 2

Commonly Used Clinical Scales 

Beck Depression Inventory

The Beck Depression Inventory created by Aaron T. Beck is a 21-question multiple-choice self-report inventory, one of the most widely used psychometric tests for measuring the severity of depression.

In its current version, the BDI-II is designed for individuals aged thirteen and over and is composed of items relating to symptoms of depression such as hopelessness and irritability.


There are three versions of the BDI

  1. Original BDI, first published in 1961.

  2. Revised in 1978 as the BDI-1A

  3. the BDI-II published in 1996. 

The BDI is widely used as an assessment tool by health care professionals and researchers in a variety of settings.

The BDI-II was developed in response to the American Psychiatric Association's publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, which changed many of the diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. Participants were asked to rate how they have been feeling for the past two weeks, as opposed to the past week as in the original BDI.

The BDI-II contains 21 questions, each answer being scored on a scale value of 0 to 3. Higher total scores indicate more severe depressive symptoms. The standardized cutoffs used differ from the original:

0–13: minimal depression

14–19: mild depression

20–28: moderate depression

29–63: severe depression.

BDI-II is positively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with a Pearson r of 0.71. The test was also shown to have a high one-week test-retest reliability (Pearson r =0.93) and high internal consistency (α=.91).

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