Sunday, 5 February 2023

Leeds Dependence Questionnaire

Leeds Dependence Questionnaire

Raistrick, Bradshaw, Tober, Weiner, Allison, Healey | 1994 

A self-report instrument called the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) assesses the level of dependence in people with substance use disorders. The questionnaire was created by a research team at the University of Leeds in the UK and released for the first time in 1994.

The LDQ has 20 questions that look at many aspects of drug dependence, such as how much a person's drug use gets in the way of their daily lives, how strong their need is, how important the drug is to them, and how much they can control how much they use.

Usually given as a self-report questionnaire, the LDQ takes between 10 and 15 minutes to complete. The responses are evaluated from "not at all" to "always." The overall score, which reflects the intensity of the reliance, is created by adding the scores from each item.

The LDQ has been used in numerous research to evaluate the degree of dependence in people with substance use disorders and has been shown to have strong reliability and validity. The questionnaire has also been utilised in international studies and translated into several languages.

To sum up, the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire can help people with substance use disorders figure out how much they depend on a substance. It is a reliable and valid tool that gives useful information about the type and severity of addiction and can help with treatment planning and making decisions.

Reference

Raistrick, D.S., Bradshaw, J., Tober, G., Weiner, J., Allison, J. & Healey, C. (1994) Development of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Addiction, 89, pp 563-572. 


Hypofrontality in Schizophrenia

Hypofrontality in Schizophrenia

Hypofrontality, or reduced activity in the brain's frontal lobes, is a well-established feature of schizophrenia. The frontal lobes are responsible for various executive functions, such as planning, decision-making, working memory, and inhibitory control, which are often impaired in individuals with schizophrenia.

Proposed mechanisms

Several studies using neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have shown reduced activation or metabolism in the frontal lobes of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. This hypofrontality has been linked to the negative symptoms and cognitive impairments commonly observed in schizophrenia.
  • reduced blood flow
  • reduced dopaminergic activation
  • reduced metabolism
However, it is important to note that hypofrontality's exact nature and causes in schizophrenia are not yet fully understood and require further research. Additionally, hypofrontality is not specific to schizophrenia and may also be present in other psychiatric conditions.

References

  1. Lawrie, S. M., & Abukmeil, S. S. (1998). Brain abnormality in schizophrenia: a systematic and quantitative review of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172(05), 110-120.
  2. Peltier, S., & Casanova, M. F. (2015). The anatomy of schizophrenia: A review of structural brain imaging studies. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21(4), 235-255.

Tuesday, 31 January 2023

ICD-11 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

ICD-11 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (6A02)

Autism spectrum disorder is characterised by persistent deficits in the ability to initiate and to sustain reciprocal social interaction and social communication, and by a range of restricted, repetitive, and inflexible patterns of behaviour, interests or activities that are clearly atypical or excessive for the individual’s age and sociocultural context. The onset of the disorder occurs during the developmental period, typically in early childhood, but symptoms may not become fully manifest until later, when social demands exceed limited capacities. Deficits are sufficiently severe to cause impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning and are usually a pervasive feature of the individual’s functioning observable in all settings, although they may vary according to social, educational, or other context. Individuals along the spectrum exhibit a full range of intellectual functioning and language abilities.

Inclusions:              

  • Autistic disorder

Exclusions:             

  • Rett syndrome (LD90.4)

6A02.0     Autism spectrum disorder without disorder of intellectual development and with mild or no impairment of functional language

All definitional requirements for autism spectrum disorder are met, intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour are found to be at least within the average range (approximately greater than the 2.3rd percentile), and there is only mild or no impairment in the individual's capacity to use functional language (spoken or signed) for instrumental purposes, such as to express personal needs and desires.

6A02.1      Autism spectrum disorder with disorder of intellectual development and with mild or no impairment of functional language

All definitional requirements for both autism spectrum disorder and disorder of intellectual development are met and there is only mild or no impairment in the individual's capacity to use functional language (spoken or signed) for instrumental purposes, such as to express personal needs and desires.

6A02.2       Autism spectrum disorder without disorder of intellectual development and with impaired functional language

All definitional requirements for autism spectrum disorder are met, intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour are found to be at least within the average range (approximately greater than the 2.3rd percentile), and there is marked impairment in functional language (spoken or signed) relative to the individual’s age, with the individual not able to use more than single words or simple phrases for instrumental purposes, such as to express personal needs and desires.

6A02.3      Autism spectrum disorder with disorder of intellectual development and with impaired functional language

All definitional requirements for both autism spectrum disorder and disorder of intellectual development are met and there is marked impairment in functional language (spoken or signed) relative to the individual’s age, with the individual not able to use more than single words or simple phrases for instrumental purposes, such as to express personal needs and desires.

6A02.5      Autism spectrum disorder with disorder of intellectual development and with absence of functional language

All definitional requirements for both autism spectrum disorder and disorder of intellectual development are met and there is complete, or almost complete, absence of ability relative to the individual’s age to use functional language (spoken or signed) for instrumental purposes, such as to express personal needs and desires

6A02.Y        Other specified autism spectrum disorder

6A02.Z         Autism spectrum disorder, unspecified

REFERENCE:

International Classification of Diseases Eleventh Revision (ICD-11). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. License: CC BY-ND 3.0 IGO.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/igo/


Sunday, 29 January 2023

Psychiatry Board Review: Pearls of Wisdom, Third Edition

Psychiatry Board Review: Pearls of Wisdom, Third Edition

Rebecca A. Schmidt
April 18, 2019

  • Pearls of Wisdom: Third Edition contains more than 2,300 quick-hit questions and answers addressing the most frequently tested topics on psychiatry board and in-service examinations. Only the correct answers are given, so only the correct answers can be memorized. The rapid-fire question-and-answer format with checkboxes to mark which questions to come back to lends itself to studying alone or with a partner. Every question in this edition has been carefully evaluated to make sure it is completely up-to-date. The new edition addresses four sections of major importance on the boards: General Information; Psychopathology (such as eating disorders and sleep disorders); Special Topics (such as substance abuse and child psychiatry); and Treatment Modalities.
  • Market: Psychiatry Residents seeking certification in psychiatry (1,200 per year) Recertifying Psychiatrists (750 per year); recertification is required every ten years. Residents preparing for yearly in-service examinations (4,800 per year)
  • Unique “flashcards in a book” format allows test-takers to quickly evaluate their knowledge of the content, and complements studying with a partner.
  • The format complements other review material and works well with larger course books.
Psychiatry Board Review: Pearls of Wisdom, Third Edition
Psychiatry Board Review: Pearls of Wisdom, Third Edition




Publisher: McGraw Hill LLC
ISBN: 9780071549691

About the author (2009)

Rebecca A. Schmidt, MD, is a child and adolescent psychiatry consultant in Omaha, Nebraska.

Superego Cafe

Superego Cafe

The Critical Appraisal Company

For more than 22 years, healthcare professionals have enjoyed visiting Superego Cafe. Superego Cafe is a medical education startup, that offers online, in-person, and customised training programs for health. Superego Cafe, a trainee psychiatrist website, was launched in 1999. It expanded to include a critical appraisal, ongoing professional development, and MRCPsych exam preparation courses. The webmaster of PsychClub.com's Superego Cafe's MRCPsych Forum was Dr Gurpal Singh Gosall. This website, the top online resource for MRCPsych exam applicants, was created and is now run by him. The website has received positive reviews from the British Medical Journal and Hospital Doctor magazine. To address the demand for our distinctive training method in healthcare organisations and the pharmaceutical business, not just in the UK but also across the rest of Europe, the Middle East, and Australasia, a new subsidiary, The Critical Appraisal Company, was created in 2013.

The critical evaluation assessment has been added to different specialities' training curricula. Now that the company has developed, all medical and dental professionals can take advantage of our training programmes. They now provide virtual training sessions and online courses after launching fresh online content on their website. Please send us an email at office@criticalappraisal.com to learn more about the courses we offer.

The Critical Appraisal Company operates under the trading name Superego Café.

The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal (5th edition, 2020)

The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal (5th edition, 2020)




Written by two tutors of The Critical Appraisal Company and published by PasTest, The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal is a comprehensive and up-to-date review of clinicians' knowledge and skills to appraise clinical research papers.




This new edition expands on the award-winning third edition with a modified structure, new and updated chapters, new figures and scenarios, and more help with difficult topics. Also includes excerpts from real clinical papers to illustrate key concepts.

The Doctor’s Guide to Critical Appraisal is used worldwide by doctors, dentists, nurses, medical students and researchers. The book can help develop the knowledge and skills to appraise clinical research papers effectively. It provides essential reading for a range of postgraduate examinations, including MRCGP, MRCPsych, FCEM, FRCS, MRCOG, ISFE, MFPH and FPM.

This latest edition of the award-winning book is available at all good bookshops. It is also included with the Critical Appraisal Masterclass and Workshop.

MRCPsych CASC Notes

MRCPsych CASC Notes

The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Clinical Assessment of Skills and Competencies (CASC) examination was created to evaluate the clinical competencies expected of trainees following 30 months of training. It is the last obstacle to clearing before becoming a full member of the College. This book aims to aid readers in passing what could seem to be a challenging examination by giving them the essential theory.



Reference Type:  Book
Record Number: 511
Author: Dutta, A. and Bhandary, N.M.
Year: 2010
Title: MRCPsych CASC Notes
Publisher: Lulu.com
Short Title: MRCPsych CASC Notes
ISBN: 9781445702032
URL: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ySnpAQAAQBAJ




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