Rating scales for catatonia
The routine use of validated rating scales has also been advocated to facilitate the identification of catatonic signs and a diagnosis of catatonia. A rating scale helps to identify people who have catatonia that might otherwise not have been diagnosed.
Seven catatonia rating scales were retrieved:
Modified Rogers Scale,
Rogers Catatonia Scale,
Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale
Northoff Catatonia Rating Scale
Braunig Catatonia Rating Scale
The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale
The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, has been widely recommended for its ease of use and reliability and validity. In this scale, the presence of two or more signs is suggestive of catatonia.
Is the most widely used instrument for catatonia. The Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale has twenty-three items, and there is also a shorter, 14-item screening version. The reliability and validity of the Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale has been established (Bush et al, 1996). The screening section marks items #1-14 as either “absent” or “present.” The full-scale rates items #1-23 on a scale of 0-3. The ratings are made based on the observed behaviors during the examination, except for completing the items for “withdrawal” and “autonomic abnormality,” which may be based upon either observed behaviors and/or chart documentation. Rate items only if well defined. If uncertain, rate the item as “0”.
Using the Bush–Francis Catatonia Rating Scale, 32% of 225 patients with chronic schizophrenia meet the criteria for catatonia. See Ungvari et al., 2005.
It has two subscales
A screening instrument with fourteen items that are marked as either present or absent.
The full severity scale with nine extra items scored zero to three.
The Modified Rogers Scale
It rates abnormalities in movement, volition, speech, and overall behavior, and aids in the distinction of catatonic signs from similar extrapyramidal side-effects. It has eleven items out of which three or more constitute a diagnosis of catatonic syndrome.
Items in the Modified Rogers Scale
Ungvari GS, Leung SK, Ng FS, Cheung HK, Leung T. Schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features ('catatonic schizophrenia'): I. Demographic and clinical correlates in the chronic phase. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005;29(1):27-38. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2004.08.007