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ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50)

ICD-11 Criteria for Gambling Disorder (6C50) A collection of dice Foundation URI : 6C50 Gambling disorder Description Gambling disorder is characterised by a pattern of persistent or recurrent gambling behaviour, which may be online (i.e., over the internet) or offline, manifested by: 1. impaired control over gambling (e.g., onset, frequency, intensity, duration, termination, context); 2. increasing priority given to gambling to the extent that gambling takes precedence over other life interests and daily activities; and 3. continuation or escalation of gambling despite the occurrence of negative consequences. The pattern of gambling behaviour may be continuous or episodic and recurrent. The pattern of gambling behaviour results in significant distress or in significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning. The gambling behaviour and other features are normally evident over a
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Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Overview Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a condition that is not due to a block within the ventricular system. Still, there is an obstruction in the subarachnoid space, preventing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from flowing over the ventricles. This condition is more common in the elderly. Aetiology A history of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), head injury, or meningitis may be associated with the development of normal pressure hydrocephalus. Clinical Features The clinical features of normal pressure hydrocephalus include progressive memory impairment and dementia, slowness, marked unsteadiness of gait, and urinary incontinence. Investigations The removal of 50 ml of CSF can lead to a temporary improvement in cognition. CT or MRI can show dilatation of the ventricular system and relatively normal sulci. Periventricular lucencies can also be found on MRI. Management The treatment for normal pressure hydrocephalus involves the insertion of a shunt to improve the c

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Overview Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease is a rapidly progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system that can be transmitted by blood or tissues between human beings. Epidemiology It is estimated that 50-100 cases occur each year in the UK, with an equal sex ratio and onset typically occurring between the ages of 40 and 60. Aetiology The disease is caused by the accumulation of an abnormal prion protein in the brain, which is encoded on chromosome 20. Those with the E4 allele of apolipoprotein are at a higher risk of developing the disease, and the familial form, known as Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker, accounts for 10% of patients and principally affects the cerebellum. It is also autosomal dominant. Clinical Features Clinical features of the disease can include personality changes, seizures, intellectual deterioration, and neurological deficits such as cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, extrapyramidal signs, and myoclonus sensitivity to noise or touch. In new-variant CJD (nvCJD), initi

Sensate focus: Masters and Johnson (1970)

Sensate focus: Masters and Johnson (1970) Introduction: Sensate Focus is a psychosexual therapy technique developed by William Masters and Virginia Johnson in the 1970s to address sexual dysfunction in couples. The technique involves non-sexual touching exercises that are designed to help couples focus on physical sensations and enhance their communication around sexual needs and desires. This article reviews the Sensate Focus technique, its stages, and its effectiveness. Stages of Sensate Focus: Sensate Focus is a three-stage process that gradually introduces sexual touch as the couple progresses through each stage. The first stage involves non-genital touching, where couples touch each other's bodies in a non-sexual way, focusing on the sensations of touch and skin contact. The second stage involves genital touching, where couples explore each other's genital areas, again focusing on physical sensations rather than sexual performance. The final stage of the technique involves

Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Intergroup Hostility: A Structured Overview

Prejudice, Stereotypes, and Intergroup Hostility: A Structured Overview Introduction Prejudice, stereotypes, and intergroup hostility are interrelated concepts that can have a significant impact on social relationships and attitudes between different groups of people. This article will provide a structured overview of these concepts and examine how they are related. Prejudice Prejudice refers to an unjustified negative attitude toward an individual or group based on their membership in a particular social category, such as race, ethnicity, or religion. Prejudice can take many forms, including racism, sexism, homophobia, and xenophobia. It is important to note that prejudice is not the same as discrimination, which refers to the unequal treatment of individuals or groups based on prejudice. Stereotypes Stereotypes are oversimplified generalizations about individuals or groups that are made without considering each individual's unique qualities and characteristics. Stereotypes are of

Factors associated with risk of repetition of attempted suicide

Factors Associated with Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Previous Attempt: Individuals who have previously attempted suicide are at a higher risk of repeating the attempt. This is because past attempts may indicate a higher level of psychological distress and a greater likelihood of attempting suicide again in the future. Personality Disorder: People with personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder, are also at an increased risk of repeating attempted suicide. These disorders can cause significant emotional instability, impulsivity, and difficulty regulating emotions, which can contribute to suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Criminal Record: Those with a criminal record are at a higher risk of repeating attempted suicide. This may be due to a history of substance abuse, impulsivity, and aggression, which can increase the risk of suicidal behavior. History of Violence: Individuals with a history of violence are also at an increased risk of repeating attempte

Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3

Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3 Palaniyappan, L. and Krishnadas, R. Published: 25 March 2010 Following the recent changes to the syllabus and MRCPsych exam by the Royal College of Psychiatrists, this book contains 450 multiple-choice questions to help psychiatry trainees to prepare for Paper 3 of the exam. Supporting these MCQs are detailed explanatory answers and revision notes referenced to the key textbooks used by trainees. The book's content matches the MRCPsych syllabus and includes practice papers for true exam preparation. Reference Type:  Book Record Number: 508 Author: Palaniyappan, L. and Krishnadas, R. Year: 2010 Title: Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3 Publisher: OUP Oxford Short Title: Best of Five MCQs for MRCPsych Paper 3 ISBN: 9780199553617

Escape and Avoidance Conditioning: Understanding and Applying the Concepts

Escape and Avoidance Conditioning: Understanding and Applying the Concepts Introduction Escape and avoidance conditioning are two types of classical conditioning that are used to explain how animals and humans learn from their environment. These concepts have been studied for decades and have important applications in fields such as psychology, education, and animal training. Escape Conditioning Escape conditioning is a type of classical conditioning in which an organism learns to avoid or escape from an unpleasant stimulus by performing a specific behavior. In other words, escape conditioning is the process of learning to remove oneself from an aversive situation. An example of escape conditioning can be seen in a dog that learns to jump over a fence to escape a painful shock. The dog associates the shock with the fence and learns to escape the aversive situation by jumping over the fence. As a result, the dog's behavior is shaped through reinforcement, as the escape behavior resu